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Development Communication > Involving People, Evolving Behaviour

Involving People,
Evolving Behaviour

Editors: Neill McKee, Erma Manoncourt,
Chin Saik Yoon, Rachel Carnegie

Contributing Authors: Mira B. Aghi,
Rachel Carnegie, Bruce Dick, Erma Manoncourt, Neill McKee, Pamela Reitemeier, Douglas Webb, Rhona Birrell Weisen, Esther Wyss, Chin Saik Yoon

Publishers: Southbound and UNICEF, 2000
Published in 2000
ISBN-10: 983-9054-22-8
ISBN-13: 978-983-9054-22-4
EAN: 9789839054224
272 pages, 14.5x22cm, US$22.00


A review about the book published in Development in Practice ,
Volume 10, Number 5, November 2000, pages 723-724.

". . . . Involving People, Evolving Behaviour is the product of a multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary collaboration of development practitioners with wide international experience both at policy and programme level. It is not a book on theory or theories of behaviour change; rather, it questions the dominant theories and brings them to bear on empirical realities of the developing world. Such sophisticated analyses are rare and make the present volume a very welcome addition to development literature. More often theories are treated as sacred and applied to field situations with dismal results. This book is an attempt to negotiate theoretical traps in development policy, planning, and programme development, particularly in respect to behaviour change and adoption of innovations. It is an imaginative and innovative project that not only transcends disciplinary barriers but country and regional barriers as well. . . . This book must be read not only by development practitioners and policy makers but also by students and academics involved in rural developments in developing countries. The simple style and language with which arguments are clearly presented, the numerous case studies that bring real life to the fore, the wide coverage spanning almost all regions of the developing world, and keen attention to gender issues, make this book interesting for a general as well as specialist audience."

Contents of the book
Chapter One

Why do people behave as they do?
Theories and frameworks
Introduction  Click here to read the full text.  
What is meant by "behaviour"?
Whose behaviour is the focus of an intervention target?
Explaining behaviour and behaviour change
Some theoretical frameworks which explain individual behaviour
Health Belief Model (HBM)
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Personal Behaviour (TPB)
Stages of Change Theory
Some theoretical frameworks which explain interpersonal behaviour
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
Social Experience Model Social Network and Social Support Theory
Some theoretical frameworks which explain community or societal behaviour
Diffusion of Innovations (DOI)
Conceptual Model of Community Empowerment
Applying behavioural theories to the programme planning process
BASNEF Model Programming for behaviour change
Dynamics of human behaviour


Chapter Two
The age of information
Recent history
Media and information formats
Accessing information Interpersonal and group media
Mass media
Folk media
New information and communication technologies (ICTs)
Creating information
Competing information
Identifying information Informing the informers
Development theories and the differing roles of information
The information-based approach Information as the only choice Information shielding bullets: Red Cross information in areas of conflict
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) and behaviour change in children in India
Limits to information-based approaches
An intervention study of tobacco habits among rural Indian villagers in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat
Producing effective information materials
Knowledge, not information


Chapter Three
Motivation to act: Effective communication
Planned approaches to communication
Communication research and values
Message design and positioning Interpersonal communication
Using natural networks
Participatory communication
Social mobilization and communication definitions
Community mobilization
Media-based mobilization


Chapter Four
The ability to act: Strengthening people's life skills
Introduction What are life skills?
Interdependence of life skills
Why are life skills required? W
here are life skills programmes conducted?
Life skills learning process
Model of active learning process
Role of teacher/facilitator
Life skills and empowerment
Peer education and life skills
Are life skills cross-cultural?
Research related to programme development and implementation
Communicating life skills concepts through other channels
Summary of lessons learned


Chapter Five
Making change possible: Creating an enabling environment

Part I: Setting the context  
Why an enabling environment?
Analysing the environment

Part II: Key factors in the environment

Policy and legislation
Global starting points "Education for all" Health policy
Bottom-up policy change Barriers to implementation

Service provision
Sexual and reproductive health
Youth-friendly services

Education systems
Introduction: Do schools empower or oppress?
Issues of quality in education
Access and retention

Cultural factors
Culture as dynamic not fixed
Culture and gender
Culture and mass media

Religion and society
Finding areas for collaboration

Socio-political factors
Widening access to political power

Socio-economic factors
Introduction: Poverty and the global economy

Physical environment
Poverty and the environment
Protecting the environment

Organisational environment
Creating an enabling organisation
Lessons for wider application: Promoting the enabling organisation
Visualisation in Participatory Programmes (VIPP)
Appreciative Inquiry
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

Part III: Summary of lessons learned on creating an enabling environment


Chapter Six
Behaviour and beyond: An evaluation perspective
Deciding on the type of evaluation needed
Context evaluation: What is its purpose and what type of question does it try to answer?
Practice application
Process evaluation: What is its purpose and what type of question does it try to answer?
Practice application
Impact and outcome evaluations: What are their purposes and what type of questions do they try to answer?
Impact evaluation
Outcome evaluation
Practice application
Monitoring: What is its relationship to evaluation?
Lessons learnt in conducting programme evaluations
Determining if a programme makes a difference in behaviour change
Evaluation design
After only design
Before/after design
Before/after with comparison group design
Time series design
Assuring programme quality
Individual interviews
Designing the evaluation protocol
Choosing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) indicators
Suggested core indicators for sexual health programmes
Pointers for choosing M&E indicators
Common problems with core indicators
Choice of evaluation methods: Combining qualitative and quantitative data Knowledge, attitude, practice, behaviour (KAPB) surveys
Focus group discussions (FGDs)
In-depth interviews
Intercept interviews
Observation studies
Document and record reviews
Participatory rapid assessment (PRA), also known as participatory learning method (PLAM), rapid rural appraisal (RRA)
Triangulation: Combining qualitative and quantitative methods
The challenge of analysing evaluation data
Quantitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
Case studies
Participatory evaluation
Evaluation in the future

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