A Selective Annotated
Bibliography on Communication for Development
Compiled by Rajasunderam
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Bergdall D. (1993)
Methods for Active Participation-Experiences in Rural Development from
East and Central Africa
Oxford University Press, Nairobi, Kenya.
The book comprises the first two parts of the final report on "The Method
for Active Participation Research and Development Project" (MAP). The MAP
project was implemented in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia from 1988 to 1991.
Part one is a comprehensive review of findings from the project field work.
Part two "The MAP facilitators handbook" serves as a practical guide to the
participatory techniques developed by the MAP project. It is a useful resource
for the training of potential community facilitators and animators in
participatory communication fo r development.
Berrigan F. J. (1981)
Community Communications: The role of the community media in
The monograph discusses the role of community media in the development process
focusing upon the issues of 'access' and 'participation.' The community media
methodology is examined in detail with three examples of successful projects
- the Audio Cassette Listening Forums Project (ACLF) in Tanzania, the Audiovisual
Production Centre for Training (CEPAC) in Peru and the Kheda Television Project
in Ahmedabad, India. None of the three examples are offered as models. There
are elements in each of them that bea r consideration when a community media
program is planned.
Bessette G., Rajasunderam C.V. (eds) (1996)
Participatory Development Communication: A West
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
The core material presented in this book emerged from presentations and group
discussions at the "Consultative Meeting on Participatory Development
Communication within the West and Central African context" jointly organized
in February 1995 by the Intern ational Communication Group of Ryerson Polytechnic
University and the International Development Research Centre.
The publication also presents the conceptual framework which inspired the
formulation of the IDRC Research Program in Participatory Development
Communication. The program is currently targeted at West and Central Africa,
and more specifically NGO's in nin e countries: Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal,
C(te d'Ivoire, Benin, Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon.
Among the themes and issues explored at the Toronto meeting were the following:
the use of participatory communication as a tool for grassroots non-formal
education, the potential of women and young girls as community communicators;
training needs in part icipatory development communication; and the challenges
to be met in applying participatory methods in development communication.
Bock J.C., Papagiannis G.J. (eds) (1983)
Non-formal Education and National Development: A Critical Assessment
of Policy Research and Practice.
Praeger, New York.
The contributions provide alternative perspectives on the role of non-formal
education in the national development effort, demonstrating the use of theory
and research to influence practice. Part One of the book introduces readers
to some alternative soci al science perspectives on Non-formal Education.
Part Two brings together a collection of studies that provide empirical evidence
for the thesis laid out in part one. Part Three expands on the theories focused
on part one. Part Four examines the role of p lanning and evaluation in
non-formal education activities. Part five examines the theoretical perspectives
of the studies presented in this volume and proposes a framework for further
research on the development of participative practices in the policy, p lanning,
implementation and evaluation process.
Boeren A. (1994)
In Other Words: The Cultural Dimension of Communication for
Centre for the Study of Development (CESO), The Netherlands.
The book focuses on the cultural and educational aspects of communication
for development. It is partly based on literature research and partly on
personal experience gained in communication projects in Africa.
The book is divided into four parts. The first part contains two chapters
devoted to a description of the context of development communication. The
second part describes the intricate link between communication and culture.
The third part deals with the e ducational potential of media. The last part
explores the steps involved in the planning and implementation/production
of communication events, programs and materials.
Casmir F.L. (ed) (1991)
Communication in Development
The book illustrates the wide variety of thinking and practice that are today
at the cutting edge of development communication with a central focus on
culture and human beings in culture. It documents development communication
experiences in Japan, Korea, Nigeria, Poland, China, Brazil, Latin America
(among aborigines), Canada and Germany. The contributions are organised in
five parts: conceptual bases for the use of communication in development;
communication in the development of contemporary states; Ce ntral and South
America: Regional Development and Communication Policies; Dealing with the
need of Cultural Minorities: Communication and Development within States;
The Role of Communication in the Development of Nations and States. Included
in Part One i s a contribution by Jan Servaes on new perspectives for
communication and development. The tables provided in this chapter serve
to clearly outline the important component parts and implications of various
new paradigms on development and communication.
Chauhan S.S., Stone R.U. (1994)
Training Trainers for Development
Conducting a Workshop on Participatory Training Techniques
The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA)
Washington D.C., USA
This manual focuses on interactive, learner-centered training methods and
the principles of adult learning. It is organised into 12 sessions which
build upon each other in terms of information and are sequenced in logical
presentation order for an actual training workshop. The sessions are designed
to move participants through the four components of the experiential learning
model: experience, reflection, generalization and application.
The Manual documents the participatory training approaches and activities
that CEDPA has used in many programs to strengthen the capacity of health,
family planning and other development organizations. It has been pilot-tested
at Regional Training of Trai ners Workshops in Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania,
Nepal and Ukraine.
Deacock, A. & van Poelje, R. (1996)
Artists As Experts: A Participatory Methodology to Produce Traditional
and Popular Media
This is a training kit which both practitioners and trainers of development
communication will find useful. It is a compilation of population communication
experiences in the production of songs, dances, theatre plays, poems and
other forms of cultural ex pression which maybe employed in development
activities. The kit is a result of the authors' desire to synthesize from
their learnings in the field a carefully structured yet truly participatory
production process.The kit contains a manual, a computer dis kette and a
video. The manual is in two parts: "Working with Artists", a training process
in ten steps, concentrates on the training of workshop facilitators; "The
world's a stage", shows step-by-step, day-by-day, the production process
with artists. The diskette contains files of training support materials (in
Word Perfect 5.1, and in English) which trainers can easily translate or
adapt to meet the specific needs of local groups. A video tape which illustrates
two workshop experiences in two different c ultural settings. "Communication
for production and environment" depicts the participatory production process
in Malawi, where artists worked on the relationships between population and
environment. "Drumming for Prosperity" focuses on the training of fac ilitators
in Uganda and highlights the production methodology at district level.
Fugelsang A., Chandler D. (1987)
Development Communication Case Study. The paradigm of communication in
development: From knowledge transfer to community participation-lessons from
the Grameen Bank
The Grameen Bank grew out of an action research project in Jobra village
near the University in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The objectives of the project
were to extend credit to landless poor men and women, to eliminate the
exploitation of money lenders and to create opportunities for self-employment.
In 1983 the Project was transformed into an independent bank. It is called
Grameen Bank which in Bangla means Village Bank. The Case Study describes
and analyses the communication aspects of the Grameen Bank. According
to the authors "the driving force in Grameen Bank's progress for the benefit
of the poorest is undoubtedly person-to person communication." The analysis
of the communication aspects of the Grameen Bank is preceded by a short outline
of the evolu tion of the concept of development communication.
Ah-hah! A new approach to popular education
Between the Lines, Toronto
Gatt-Fly is a project of Canadian churches that carries out research, education
and action in solidarity with peoples organizations in Canada and the Third
World. The Ah-hah seminars organized by the project use innovative approaches
to learning. The aim of the seminars is to get participants to piece together
their individual experiences in a way that clarifies their understanding
of political and economic systems. They use the device of drawing a picture
of the world as it is experienced by seminar part icipants. Starting with
a particular situation, the picture grows to illustrate the connections between
personal lives and broader social and economic structures. The book describes
the principles and techniques developed by Gatt-Fly over eight years of p
ractice in participatory education for social change.
Hope A., Timmel S. (1984)
Training for Transformation: A Handbook for Community Workers (3
Mambo Press, Zimbabwe
The training methods described in the book integrates insights from five
major sources: Paulo Freire's work on critical awareness; Human Relations
Training; Organizational Development; Social Analysis and the Christian Concept
The book has been reproduced in three parts for easy use by field workers.
Each part belongs with the other two parts. It is designed to assist community
workers in the field who are encouraging the development of self-reliant
Training programmes using the participatory approaches described in the book
have proved to be effective with community groups in Africa and India. The
three volumes of Training for Transformation provide very useful resource
material for the training of community development workers and facilitators.
Kamara S., Denkabe A. (1993)
A handbook on participatory approach to training-Volume One: Project
Planning, Management and Animation
Freedom Publications, Accra
This handbook is based on the training experiences of the CUSO-CCPD (Canadian
University Services Overseas - Committee on Churches' Participation in
Development) Training Programs initiated in 1988 to strengthen the institutional
capacity of the NGO commu nity of Northern Ghana. More specifically the program
was designed to improve the skills of the NGO personnel in project planning
and management, agricultural extension, health, sanitation and gender in
development. It spells out the underlying principles which shaped the project
training process and provides useful hints on how the success of that experience
could be replicated elsewhere.
Kavinya A., Alam S., Decock A. (1994)
Applying DSC methodologies to population issues: A Case study in
This case study written by the all-woman team which shared the technical
responsibility for "THE FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROJECT" in Malawi, documents
the population communication methodologies used by the project and the lessons
According to the authors, the single most positive and crucial factor in
the Project was the participatory approach taken by the project. The various
stages of the whole process are described in detail showing what methods
were adopted and how all these a ffected the final outcome.
Keehn M. (ed) (1982)
Bridging the gap: A participatory approach to Health and Nutrition
Education Save the Children. U.S.A.
This manual is addressed to nutrition and health educators who are interested
in trying out new participatory ways of working at the community level. It's
purpose is to describe simple techniques by which field staff can be trained
to approach local commu nities more sensitively.
The techniques and materials described in the Manual are referred to as
'experiential'. They have been field tested in more than one country and
in some instances by more than one agency.
Each of the four main chapters of the manual illustrates the specific ways
in which key educational considerations can be applied in the training of
staff to conduct nutritional education.
Kennedy T. (1989)
Community Animation-An open-ended process in MEDIA DEVELOPMENT,
World Association for Christian Communication. London.
The focus of this contribution is on the philosophy behind the Community
Animation Approach and the vital and difficult role of the field worker/community
animator in community communication.
It is argued that the community animation approach is not an ideology or
technique that can be memorized and then applied universally in a series
of rigidly defined steps. It is a process in time to be used in an open-ended
and responsible manner
Maclure R.A. (1988)
Intervention and Dependency: A Case Study of Animation Rurale Programs
in Burkina Faso
'Animation Rurale' programs have been traditionally conceived as a method
of development intervention which combines non-formal education and the promotion
of new participatory rural institutions.
This is a case study of the dynamics and inherent contradictions of three
Animation Rurale programs in Burkina Faso. It demonstrates that the Animation
Rurale programs far from generating behavioral processes and structures
conductive to autonomous commun ity-based management have instead stimulated
new dimensions of dependency.
Mayo J., Servaes J. (eds) (1994)
Approaches to Development Communication: An Orientation and Resource
The kit is modular in design with six major components: Introduction; Concepts;
Profiles; Case Studies, Extracts from audio-visual sources and Reference
The core module on Concepts outlines the conceptual context and framework
for different approaches to development communication. It focuses on the
ways in which the main theories related to development communication have
been put into practice. The module on Profiles provides brief descriptions
of agencies concerned with development communication programs and projects.
Case Studies highlight a range of development communication strategies in
different world regions. The module in videocassette provides ex tracts from
audio-visual sources demonstrating the various ways in which development
communication theories have been put into practice. Reference Materials include
a select bibliography and a database on diskette containing short descriptions
of some 300 development communication projects around the world.
The kit would be useful as an orientation guide and source of information
for communication planners, policy makers and students in University Development
McKee N. (1992)
Social Mobilization and Social Marketing
in Developing Communities:
Lessons for Communicators
The book examines the concepts of social mobilization, social marketing and
community participation in the context of developing communities. It provides
lessons from a number of communication programs in public health, nutrition
and family planning which have used approaches based on these concepts.
Part Three of the book -A Synthesis of Lessons learned- contains useful insights
on the methodology of "Visualization in Participatory Planning" (VIPP). The
VIPP method seen as an important and participatory way to ensure that research
results are used fo r program purposes has proved useful in the training
and orientation of field development workers. It has also been used successfully
to bring a wide range of partners together "in a social mobilization planning
McIntyre P. (1996)
Facts for Life: Lessons from Experience
United Nations Children's Fund, U.S.
The book documents the variety of ways in which "FACTS FOR LIFE" (jointly
published in 1989 by UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA) has been used by parents, caregivers
and communities in many countries.
"FACTS FOR LIFE" (subtitled A Communication Challenge) was designed to help
people communicate health information in a way most likely to result in
"FACTS FOR LIFE"-LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCE looks critically at issues and lessons
and suggests methods by which work with FACTS OF LIFE can be evaluated. A
significant aspect of this UNICEF publication is the emphasis on participatory
approaches to Health C ommunication.
Moffat L., Geadah Y., Stuart R. (1991)
Two halves make a whole: balancing gender relations in
Canadian Council for International Co-Operation, Ottawa.
This practical guide is divided into three sections. Section one provides
an overview of the theory and practice of gender training as well as analytical
tools for program, project and policy application. Section two gives suggestions
for designing and im plementing gender and development programmes and provides
sample training exercises. Section three describes the use and value of case
studies as a learning tool, followed by eight case studies.
"Training in Community Participation"
Report of an African Regional Workshop for Program Staff
Prowwess/UNDP. New York
PROWWESS stands for Promotion of the Role of Women in Water and Environmental
Sanitation Services - an inter-regional project based in the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP). PROWWESS/AFRICA was established in mid-1988
to place increased emphasis on African women's participation in water and
environmental sanitation services. The report provides a summary of the first
regional Training of Trainers Workshop held in Tanzania, Sept. 1988. The
main focus of the report is on the participatory training methodologies used
at the workshop.
Quebral N. (1988)
University of the Philippines at Los Banos,
The chapters in the book (most of them written between 1983 and 1987) record
reflections on the practice and teaching of development communication in
the Philippines and South East Asia seen against its beginnings in the 1970's.
Part one of the book focuses on Development Communication in the 1980's.
The chapters in this section examine development communication as a concept,
as an academic field, as practice and as a link with other disciplines. Part
two deals with Development C ommunications in the 70's. Among the articles
included in this section are Development Communication in the Agricultural
Context and Development Communication - Status and Trends.
Written by a distinguished practitioner and teacher who pioneered development
communication in Asia, the book highlights significant aspects of the
state-of-the-art of development communication in Asia.
Riano P. (ed) (1994)
Women in Grassroots Communications, Furthering Social Change
Sage, Thousand Oaks, U.S.A.
The book documents the diversity of grassroots communication experiments
carried out by Third World women. It explores the informal and formal
communication networks women use in their own communities.
Part one of the book reviews the various frameworks for addressing the
relationship between women, participation and communication. Part two deals
with the social roles of women in their communities. Part three focuses on
the process of media production a nd issues of media competency, identity,
representation, evaluation and group process. Part four examines the connection
between women's participatory communication practices and wider socio-political
The book contains useful research material for those involved in Community
Asian Development Communication in the 1990s in
Cultural Expression in the Global Village,
Nostbakken D., Morrow C. (eds)
International Development Research Centre, Ottawa
This contribution originally presented at the International Institute of
Communications Pre-Conference symposium on Cultural Expression in the Global
Village held at Montreal in Sept. 1992 is in two parts.
Part One is an overview of the evolution of development communication concepts
from a broad regional perspective. It highlights some salient aspects of
the state-of-the-art of development communication in Asia with the central
focus on broadcast media.
Part Two is devoted to a discussion of development communication alternatives
for the nineties. It presents a thesis that the state-of-the-art of the
discipline will be the cumulative result of four sets of factors: advances
in communication technology, e xigencies of broader development imperatives;
shifts in communication concepts and revisions in political policies.
Chin S.Y., Quebral N. (1991)
"Asia-Pacific Project for Broadcasting in Development: Evaluation Report"
Canadian International Development Agency
The Asia-Pacific Project for Broadcasting in Development initiated in 1986
was based on a partnership between the Asia-Pacific Institute of Broadcasting
Development, the Ryerson International Development Centre (now Ryerson
International) and the National Broadcasting Organizations of India, Indonesia
and Papua, New Guinea. The main focus of the Report is on the many lessons
learned from the six-year project.
The Introductory Note - Review of Development Communication Models by Dr.
Nora Quebral - situates the project and the Development Broadcasting Unit
(DBU) prototype developed by the Project within the larger body of work and
experience in the field of deve lopment communication.
This analysis of the conceptual and historic context for the project combined
with Chin Saik Yoon's reflections on adapting the project approach to development
broadcasting in different settings gives the "report" the character of an
insightful study on t he many challenges involved in the practice of development
Srinivasan L. (1990)
Tools for Community Participation- A Manual for Training Trainers in
This manual focuses on the SARAR approach to participatory training used
by the UNDP-based inter-regional project- 'PROMOTION OF THE ROLE OF WOMEN
IN WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION SERVICES' (PROWWESSS) in numerous projects
and workshops. The project was initiated to facilitate the development of
new approaches to women's participation in the water and sanitation sector.
The SARAR approach places emphasis on the development of human capacities
to assess, choose, plan, create, organize and take initiative. The techniques
and activities included in the Manual are described in a "how to" step by
step fashion. The application of the SARAR methodology can be gleaned from
"field insights" interwoven throughout the text of the Manual.
"Workshop on Strengthening Participatory Attitudes in Communication and
Development - Facilitator's Manual"
Program Communication and Social Mobilization Section
UNICEF, New York
The Manual is designed for use by teams of facilitators involved in planning
and presenting workshops for Unicef staff and country level collaborators
working on programs related to the needs of children and women. It uses methods
rooted in the participat ory approach to learning.
The Manual is organized in five main 'clusters' of participatory exercises:
Getting Started; Making Choices in Development; Working with Adults; Principles
of Participation and Problem - Solving; Designing and Institutionalizing
Participatory Processes. O ptional exercises for specific purposes are also
included. Each exercise includes a description of the sequence of activities
and suggested questions to stimulate discussion among workshop participants.
The Annexes provide useful information on Preparatio ns for the Workshop,
General Notes on Facilitating and descriptions of activities intended to
serve as "energizers", "Ice-breakers" and "Openers".
Vella J. (1989)
Learning to Teach
Training of Trainers for Community Development
OEF International/Savethe Children, U.S.
This simple hand-book explains the concepts and techniques of participatory
training for community development. It is designed to develop facilitating
skills, and to plan workshops.
A useful primer for trainers designing and leading a participatory workshop
related to development issues.
White A., Sadanandan Nair K., Ascroft J. (eds) (1994)
Participatory Communication - Working for Change and Development
Sage, New Delhi, India.
This volume explores the strengths, weaknesses and complex nature of
participatory communication in diverse settings. It is a judicious blend
of theoretical models and case studies on participation, development and
the communication process.
The contributions clarify the role of dialogical communication as a crucial
tool of participation. They are organized in four parts: Perspectives on
Participation; Participatory Approaches and Models; Participatory Decision
Making and Action; and Particip atory Message Making.
Part One devoted to Perspectives on Participation, specially the section
on "Caveats" would be of particular interest to development communicators
engaged in planning participatory communication projects.
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