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Technology Innovation and Commercialization Series
Promoting and strengthening the linkages between university-based research and the business community is a subject of strong current interest to researchers, industrialists, financiers and practitioners from a variety of disciplines.
This set of publications aim to clarify and elaborate the salient issues which confront all those who operate within this global science and technology arena.
Essential reading for managers of research, policy-makers and industrialists. Also ideal for participants in research management training.
The watchword of economic policy in most countries today is "competitiveness". This paper addresses the central role of technology in the competitive behaviour of nations. It begins with an overview of the process of "internationalization" of the global economy with special attention to the changing attitudes of intercompany collaboration and to the complex evolution of "networks of innovators", including strategic alliances among enterprises and research laboratories. This overview is followed by a review of the evolution of "technology policies", mainly in the industrialized world--Europe, Japan and North America. Important in this scenario is the growth of inter-ministerial cooperation in Government to understand and respond to the complexity of technical change in the enterprise. Perspectives on the role of universities in "high technology" areas of microelectronics, informatics and biotechnology are conveyed. Finally the author draws out some pertinent policy questions relevant to the discussions on university-industry interaction with emphasis on the developing countries.
The world of technology financing is little understood by those outside the field. Among the key complementary assets required for successful commercialization and innovation of technology are financial resources and the ability to mobilize such resources. The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), highlights its experience with technology financing in this publication. The various instruments and rationale for technology financing are clearly explained with references to some of the practical experiences of the ICICI. Technology financing for competitiveness necessitates a multifaceted strategy. Among the instruments discussed are: equity and venture capital initiatives; programmes to accelerate the commercialization of technologies; prototype development; scaling-up to pilot plant production; grant financing; conditional grant financing; environmental and service oriented programmes; short and long term loan facilities; technical assistance; credit and incentives schemes; and technology portfolio management practices. The author provides cogent insights into the structure and scale of these instruments, in addition to the terms and conditions that would facilitate commercial application of research, particularly within developing countries.
New winds are blowing as the 20th Century draws to a close. Globalization of markets, increased attention to "clean" production technologies and practices, and super fast communications links, are a few of the factors that affect the business research. This publication paints a picture that helps us understand better, the search for competitiveness, and the role of learning and entrepreneurship in society. The nexus between cooperative regional market frameworks, privatization of research and emerging technologies form the backdrop for universities and business against which they must develop symbiotic relationships for mutual benefit. The author distinguishes different types of competitiveness structural, sectorial and corporate, and links these to various models for successful entrepreneurship. The challenges facing universities and enterprises in their drive for better education and higher competitiveness respectively, are enunciated, with particular focus on Latin America. Here values and management practices reflect two very different cultures. Thus relations between university and industry must be guided by a flexible and decentralized policy environment. Mechanisms designed to raise the level of interaction between universities and industry should be innovative, both in a social and technical sense, and seek to bridge the relative gaps in knowledge and skills of both cultures. Analytical perspectives on the viability of various mechanisms are neatly presented in the paper.
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